McWilliams and Siege (2001) defined CSR as a corporate consciousness of responsibility towards community, ecological environment, and social environment in which it runs. Carroll (1991) stated that CSR has four typical dimensions (i.e., economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic dimension). As the strong influence of CSR is widely known, the research of CSR has been extensively performed in a variety of academic field.
According to the CSR research, it was found that CSR is influenced by corporate financial performance (Stanaland, Lwin, & Murphy, 2011; Waddock & Graves, 1997) and quality of ethics statements (Maignan & Ferrell, 2004; Stanaland et al., 2011), and CSR is the antecedent of corporate reputation (Lai, Chiu, Yang, & Pai, 2010), customer attitude (Brown & Dacin, 1997; Ellen, Mohr, & Webb, 2000), customer trust (Orlitzky & Benjamin, 2001), corporate image (Arendt, & Brettel, 2010; Luo & Bhattacharya, 2006), customer loyalty (Maignan & Ferrell, 2004), and behavioral intention (Becker-Olsen et al., 2006; David, Kline, & Dai, 2005; Sen & Bhattacharya, 2001).
Based on these previous studies about CSR, many CSR research has been conducted to identify how Carroll’s four CSR dimensions (Carroll, 1979) affect related variables (e.g., corporate reputation, customer trust, corporate image, customer loyalty, and behavioral intention). Several studies also have tried to expand the framework of Carroll’s CSR dimension (Carroll, 1991) by considering additional CSR activities which are unique of a given industry. Such research indicates that the traditional four dimensions of CSR need to be expanded depending on the type of a business (e.g., casino) or the environment that the business faces (e.g., problem gambling).
In particular, Dahlsrud (2008) summarized that there are five main dimensions of CSR – environmental, social, economic, stakeholder, and voluntariness through a content analysis of 37 definitions of CSR from literature review. Lee et al. (2013) also stated the existence of compulsory and complimentary (supplementary) RG strategies as casino’s unique CSR activities from the perspective of casino employees